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2019 - 2022
A four-year project funded by the Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsrådet) Grant no 2018-03559. The purpose of the project is to examine the language choices of migrants to Sweden who speak English.
Alastair Henry (PI)
Cape Breton University, Canada
For many immigrants arriving in Sweden, English is the default language of communication. An important asset in social interaction, English can also be a barrier to developing fluency and comprehensibility in Swedish. These ‘soft language skills’ are of crucial importance for successful integration. However, they cannot be adequately acquired in formal learning (Derwing & Munro, 2013). Consequently, each time English is used in social interaction, an opportunity to develop communicative competence in Swedish is lost. Taking a transdisciplinary approach, and using a longitudinal, qualitative design, the project will examine factors influencing the language choices of immigrants with prior knowledge of English. In addition to providing insights into the influences of English on communication in a host-county language, the project extends the research frontier by taking a multilingual perspective.
A four-year project funded by the Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsrådet) (Grant no 2013-785, 7.4 mkr). The purpose of the project was to examine the practice of teachers who were successful motivators, to develop conceptual understandings, and to disseminate examples of good practice to language teachers in Sweden and abroad.
In Sweden, students have extensive encounters with English outside the classroom. The major motivational challenge facing teachers is therefore to create goal-directed learning opportunities that connect with students’ out-of-school experiences. With the purpose of investigating the practice of teachers who are successful in meeting this challenge, ethnographic research was carried out in the classrooms of 16 “successful motivators” (Lamb, 2017). These teachers were identified in a survey were a randomly drawn sample of English teachers in grades 6–9 had been asked about beliefs and practices. The research took place during 2015 and 2016. Three types of data were collected: (a) field data: observations of lessons, including informal conversations with teachers and students, (b) interview data: semi-structured interviews with teachers and focus group interviews with students, and (c) documentary data: lesson plans, teaching materials, and artifacts produced by students.
• Teachers’ motivational strategies
• Digital media creation and L2 motivation
• Culturally-responsive teaching and L2 motivation
• Teacher–student relationships and the influences on students’ motivation
• Teachers’ self-disclosure practices and the influences on students’ motivation
• Teacher empathy and students’ motivation
• Students’ engagement and disaffection
• Motivation and project work
Henry, A., Sundqvist, P. & Thorsen, C., (2019). Motivational Practice: Insights from the Classroom. Lund: Studentlitteratur.
First chapter: PDF
My research involves the psychology of language learning and teaching, and falls into six main areas.
(i) Second Language Motivation
Much of my work has focused on motivation to learn English. As well as empirical studies with an emphasis on motivational dynamics and the employment of complex dynamic systems methodologies, my work has also focused on construct and conceptual development.
Henry, A. & Cliffordson, C. (2017). The impact of out-of-school factors on motivation to learn English: Self-discrepancies, beliefs, and experiences of self-authenticity. Applied Linguistics 38 (5)688-712. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amv060
Thorsen, C., Henry, A. & Cliffordson, C. (2018, advance access). The case of a missing person? The current L2 self and the L2 Motivational Self System. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2017.1388356
Following on from my thesis work, I have continued to examine the motivational effects of parallel language learning, and the influences – positive and negative – of the simultaneous acquisition of two or more foreign languages.
Henry, A. (2017). L2 motivation and multilingual identities. Modern Language Journal 101 (3) 548-565. https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12412
Henry, A. & Thorsen, C. (2017, advance access). The ideal multilingual self: Validity, influences on motivation, and role in a multilingual education. International Journal of Multilingualism. doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2017.1411916
(iii) Directed Motivational Currents (DMCs)
A directed motivational current is a novel construct that captures high-intensity motivation that endures over time. My work has involved the development and empirical validation of the DMC construct.
Henry, A., Davydenko, S. & Dörnyei, Z. (2015). The anatomy of directed motivational currents: Exploring intense and enduring periods of L2 motivation. Modern Language Journal 99 (2) 329-345. https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12214
Dörnyei, Z., Henry, A. & Muir, C. (2016). Motivational Currents in Language Learning: Frameworks for Focused Interventions. New York: Routledge. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/9781317679257
(iv) Language Teacher Identities
As a language teacher educator, I am interested in all aspects of identity development during programs of preservice education.
Henry, A. (2016). Conceptualizing teacher identity as a complex dynamic system: Tensions during the practicum. Journal of Teacher Education 67 (4), 291-305. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487116655382
Henry, A. & Tynkkinen, M. (2017). Becoming a process researcher of one’s own development: Using an identity mapping model to make sense of transformation dynamics during the practicum. In T. Gregersen & P. D. MacIntyre (Eds.). Innovative Practices in Language Teacher Education (pp. 295-228). New York: Springer.
(v) Language Learning and Migration
Globalization and increased transnational migration mean that growing numbers of adults find themselves learning additional languages, either by choice or through circumstances not of their choosing. My work has focused on language choices in communication events, and the effects of lingua franca English on willingness to communicate in Swedish.
Henry, A. (2016). Swedish or English? Migrants’ experiences of the exchangeability of language resources. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 19 (4) 442-463. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2015.1008979
Henry, A. (2016). Enablements and constraints: Inventorying affordances associated with lingua franca English. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 19 (5) 488-510. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2015.1014465
(vi) Digital Technologies and Students’ Motivation
Digital technologies constitute an important dimension of language learning, both within and beyond the classroom. My work has focused on the influences of digitally-mediated experiences on motivation to learn English.
Henry, A. (2013). Digital gaming and ELT: Bridging the authenticity gap. In E. Ushioda (Ed.). International perspectives on English language teaching: Motivation (pp. 133-155). Houndmills: Palgrave McMillan. https://www.palgrave.com/gp/book/9781137000866
Adolphs, S., Clark, L., Dörnyei, Z., Glover, T. Henry, A. Muir, C., Sánchez-Lovano, E., & Valstar, M. (2018, advance access). Digital innovations in L2 motivation: Harnessing the power of the Ideal L2 Self. System. doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2018.07.014
As well as individual studies, I have collaborated on book and anthology projects with leading researchers in the UK, Hungary, Canada and Japan.
Dörnyei, Z., MacIntyre, P. D. & Henry, A. (2015). Motivational Dynamics in Language Learning. Bristol, England: Multilingual Matters. http://www.multilingual-matters.com/display.asp?K=9781783092567
Lamb, M., Csizér, K., Henry, A. & Ryan, S. (in preparation). Handbook of L2 Motivation. Houndmills: Palgrave.
In carrying out research into the psychology of language learning and teaching, and important aim has been to provide accessible and useable guidance and materials to practitioners. In addition to regularly speaking at language teacher conferences, I have written a number of textbooks and collaborated in the development of course syllabi, and production of materials for teachers as part of the ‘Språksprånget’ program (Lärarlyft för Moderna Språk, Skolverket).
Henry, A. (2008). Upside Down A: Stories from the English-speaking world. Stockholm: Natur & Kultur.
Henry, A. (2009). Upside Down B: More stories from the English-speaking world. Stockholm: Natur & Kultur.
Henry, A. (2010). Listen Up! Stockholm: Natur och Kultur.
Henry, A. (2012). Echo Stories (English 5). Stockholm: Natur och Kultur.
Henry, A. (2013). Turning Points. Århus: Systime.
Henry, A. (2013). Upside Down. Århus: Systime.
Henry, A. & Persson Å. (2014). Echo Stories (English 6). Stockholm: Natur och Kultur.
In 2015 the ’Echo’ books were shortlisted for the BELMA (Best European Learning Materials Award). (Aim: to recognise “high quality educational materials that have been produced in any country in Europe”).
I teach language education on programs for primary, secondary and upper secondary teachers. In addition I teach on courses in general education, and supervise and examine undergraduate degree projects.
Digital technologies are increasingly common in language learning. Online media creation provides scope for agency and spaces for identity...
L2 motivation is a relational phenomenon, shaped by teacher responsiveness (Lamb, 2017; Ushioda, 2009). Little, however, is known about the practic...
Sustained motivation is crucial to learning a second language (L2), and one way to support this can be through the mental visualisation of ideal L2...
Demotivation (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011) and non-participation (Norton, 2001) characterise negative responses to classroom practice of a generally...
Motivational strategies are underresearched, and studies so far conducted have been in sociolinguistic contexts where English is not extensively...
While teacher–student relationships are of central importance for students' motivation, they remain under-investigated. Adopting an interdisciplina...
L2 motivation research has a longstanding monolingual bias. Recently, however, the motivational systems of a multilingual’s different languages hav...
Inspired by Steenbeek and van Geert’s (2015) proposal that teachers need to become process researchers of their own development, and making use of...
In order to reinstate interest and motivation for learning foreign languages (FLs) other than English, the Swedish government has recently reformed...
In Dörnyei's (2009a) theorizing, motivation is conceptualized to be generated by discomfort associated with the learner's experience of a discrepan...
English is today learnt in multitudes of settings worldwide, making it difficult to characterize relationships between motivation and context in...
Currently, the inner dynamics of teacher identity transformations remain a âblack box.â Conceptualizing preservice teacher identity as a comple...
Transcultural flows of capital, culture and communication have created conditions for the widespread movement of people around the globe, leading t...
Building on Zoltán Dörnyei's authoritative work in the field of learner motivation, this book introduces a new conceptualization-Directed...
Patterns of transmigration emerging as a consequence of globalization are creating new and complex markets for communicative resources in which...
It has been suggested that in foreign language learning and ELF situations, identity might not be implicated in any great extent. Focusing on the...
The purpose of this questionnaire-based study is to investigate whether differences in ways in which teachers of English view the challenge of...
Students’ declining motivation to learn English in school presents a major challenge for teachers (Ushioda, 2013) and motivation researchers need t...
In a series of articles Dörnyei and his colleagues (Dörnyei, Ibrahim, & Muir, 2015; Dörnyei, Muir, & Ibrahim, 2014; Muir & Dörnyei, 2013) describe...
I kapitlet beskrivs språk som en kontext, och fokus är på identitetsskapande som kan kopplas till inlärning av främmande språk och språkanvändning.
Introduction This paper explores multi-sited ethnography (Marcus, 2011) as a research strategy in L2 classroom research in regard to a specific...
This study explores the use of ‘retrodictive qualitative modelling’ (RQM), a novel approach described for L2 research by Dörnyei (2014) that involv...
In this paper we offer an evaluation of 'retrodictive qualitative modelling' (RQM) in action. Drawing on data from a Hong Kong setting, we offer an...
In Sweden students’ encounters with English in and out of school are very different. Spending around 20 hours per week in English-mediated...
Learning a third language (L3) in school is a common experience for students in countries all over the world, particularly in Europe where a centra...
Learning a third language (TL) brings with it particular pedagogical demands. In the pedagogy of TL learning now emerging, the development of...
In this chapter I will suggest that in cultural contexts such as Sweden where English is an integral part of young people’s everyday lives and is...
This article describes two inter-related research projects concerned with the teaching and learning of English in contemporary contexts, where...